Monday, July 19, 2010

The contents of Samuelsson's book "Crucifixion in Antiquity: "An Inquiry into the Background of the New Testament Terminology of Crucifixion"

Τα περιεχόμενα του βιβλίου του Σάμιουελσον:
"Η Σταύρωση στην Αρχαιότητα: Έρευνα στο Υπόβαθρο της Ορολογίας της Καινής Διαθήκης για τη Σταύρωση"






Contents
CONTENTS 1
ABBREVIATIONS 7
1 Ancient Sources 7
2 Papyri and Non-Literary Sources 14
3 Early Jewish Literature 14
4 Modern Works 15
5 General 18
6 Signs 19

PREFACE 21

CHAPTER ONE – INTRODUCTION 25
1 The Purpose of the Study 26

2 The Scholarly Discussion 27
 2.1 Predecessors 27
2.2 Intermediate Studies 36
2.3 Main Contributors 39
2.4 Recent Studies 48

3 Basic Problems and Method 50
3.1 The Terminology 51
3.2 The Definition 53
3.3 The Basic Questions of the Investigation 56
3.4 Considerations of Theory 57
3.4.1 Philology 58
3.4.2 Semantics 59

4 Content of the Book 63

CHAPTER TWO – GREEK LITERATURE  65
1 The Archaic Era 66
1.1 Homer 66
1.2 Aesop 69
  1.3 Conclusion – The Archaic Era 69

2 Historians of the Classical Era 70
2.1 Herodotus 70
 2.1.1 Herodotus’ Use of  ἀνασταυροῦν 71
 2.1.2 Herodotus’ Use of  ἀνασκολοπίζειν 79
  2.1.3 Herodotus’ Use of Nail Terminology 84
2.1.4 Conclusion – Herodotus and Crucifixion 87
 2.2 Thucydides 92
2.3 Ctesias 94
2.4 Xenophon 97
2.5 Conclusion – Historians of the Classical Era 97

3 Philosophical Literature of the Classical Era 99
3.1 Plato 99
3.2 Aristotle 101
3.3 Conclusion – Philosophical Literature of the Classical Era 102

4 Tragedy, Comedy and Orators of the Classical Era 102
4.1 Aeschylus 102
4.2 Sophocles 104
4.3 Euripides 105
4.4 Demosthenes 108
4.5 Conclusion – Tragedy, Comedy and Orators of the Classical Era 109

5 Greek Historians of the Hellenistic Era 109
5.1 Polybius 109
5.1.1 Undefined Suspension Punishments in Polybius 109
5.1.2 Post-Mortem Suspension in Polybius 111
5.1.3 Ante-Mortem Suspension in Polybius 112
3.1.4 Conclusion – Polybius and Crucifixion 114
5.2 Diodorus Siculus 114
5.2.1 Undefined Suspensions in Diodorus Siculus 115
5.2.2 Post-Mortem Suspensions in Diodorus Siculus 117
5.2.3 Possible Impaling Accounts in Diodorus Siculus 119
5.2.4 Possible Ante-Mortem Suspensions in Diodorus Siculus 120
5.2.5 Suspension by Nailing in Diodorus Siculus 123
5.2.6 Conclusion – Diodorus Siculus and Crucifixion 125
5.3 Conclusion – Historians of the Hellenistic Era 127

6 Papyrus and Fragmentary Texts of the Hellenistic Era127
6.1 Papyrus Hellenica 127
6.2 Alexis 128
6.3 Conclusion – Papyrus and Fragmentary Texts of the Hellenistic Era 129

7 Historians of the Roman Era 129
7.1 Strabo 129
7.1.1 Suspension Texts in Strabo 129
7.1.2 Conclusion – Strabo and Crucifixion 133
7.2 Dionysius of Halicarnassus 133
7.3 Flavius Josephus 135
7.3.1 Texts Without Indications of the Suspension Form 136
7.3.2 Texts With Indications of the Suspension Form 142
7.3.3 Conclusion – Josephus and Crucifixion 153
7.4 Plutarch 156
7.4.1 Undefined Suspensions in Plutarch 156
7.4.2 Suspension Accounts With Additional Information159
7.4.3 Nailing Accounts in Plutarch 164
7.4.4 Plutarch’s Use of σταυρός 167
7.4.5 Conclusion – Plutarch and Crucifixion 171
7.5 Appian 172
7.5.1 Appian’s Use of σταυροῦν and σταυρός 173
7.5.2 Appian’s Use of κρεμαννύναι 174
7.5.3 Conclusions – Appian and Crucifixion 178
7.6 Conclusion – Historians of the Roman Era 179

8 Philosophical and Poetical Authors of the Roman Era 180
8.1 Philo Judaeus 180
8.1.1 Undefined Suspensions in Philo 180
8.1.2 Suspensions by Nailing in Philo 185
8.1.3 Ante-Mortem Suspensions in Philo 186
8.1.4 Conclusion – Philo and Crucifixion 188
8.2 Chariton 189
8.2.1 The Suspension of Theron 189
8.2.2 The Suspension of Chaereas and His Cellmates 190
8.2.3 A Recapitulation of the Suspensions 191
8.2.4 Chariton’s Use of σταυρός 192
8.2.5 Conclusion – Chariton and Crucifixion 194
8.3 Conclusion – Philosophical and Poetical Literature of the Roman Era 194

9 Conclusion – The Greek Literature 195
9.1 The Terminology 195
9.1.1 The Verbs 195
9.1.2 The Nouns 198
9.1.3 The Terminological Problem 200
9.2 The Punishment  200

CHAPTER THREE – LATIN LITERATURE205
1 Historians 206
1.1 Gaius Iulius Caesar 206
1.2 Gaius Sallustius Crispus 207
1.3 Titus Livius 208
1.3.1 The Case Against Horatius 208
1.3.2 Livy’s Use of crux 211
1.3.3 Conclusion – Livy 214
1.4 Valerius Maximus 214
  1.4.1 Conclusion – Valerius Maximus 217
1.5 Cornelius Tacitus  217
1.5.1 Tacitus’ Use of Assumed Crucifixion Terminology 217
1.5.2 Conclusion – Tacitus 223
1.6 Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus 223
1.6.1 Suetonius Use of crux and Accompanying Verbs 223
1.6.2 The Ancient Custom 226
1.6.3 Conclusion – Suetonius 226
1.7 Clodius Licinius  227

2 Playwrights 228
2.1 Titus Maccius Plautus 228
2.1.1 Conclusion – Plautus 232
2.2 Publius Terentius Afer 233

3 Rhetorical Texts 233
3.1 Marcus Tullius Cicero 233
3.1.1 Cicero’s Oration Against Gaius Verres 234
3.1.2 Cicero’s Defense of Rabirius 240
3.1.3 Conclusion – Cicero 242
3.2 Lucius Annaeus Seneca (the Elder) 242
3.3 Lucius Annaeus Seneca (the Younger) 244
3.3.1 Conclusion – Seneca the Younger 250
3.4 Gaius Plinius Secundus 251
3.5 Marcus Fabius Quintilianus 253
3.6 Quintus Curtius Rufus 254

4 Poetry 255
4.1 Gaius Valerius Catullus 255
4.2 Quintus Horatius Flaccus 256
4.3 Publius Ovidius Naso 256
4.4 Marcus Valerius Martialis 257
4.5 Decimus Iunius Iuvenalis 258

5 Inscription259

6 Conclusion – The Latin Literature 262
6.1 The Terminology 262
6.2 The Punishment 265

CHAPTER FOUR – THE OLD TESTAMENT AND
RELATED LITERATURE 269
1The Old Testament 271
1.1 Genesis 271
1.2 Numeri 274
1.3 Deuteronomy 277
1.4 Joshua 278
1.5 The Books of Samuel 280
1.6 Ezra 284
1.7 Esther 286
1.8 Lamentation 289

2 The Deuterocanonical Texts 291

3 The Dead Sea Scrolls 291

4 The Apocryphal Old Testament 295

5 Conclusion – Old Testament and Related Literature 296
5.1 The Terminology 296
5.2 The Punishment 299

CHAPTER FIVE – THE EXECUTION OF JESUS 301
1 The Gospels 302
1.1 Jesus Foretells His Passion 302
1.2 To Carry One’s Own Cross 305
1.3 A People’s Call for Execution  307
1.4 The Road to Golgotha  309
1.5 The Execution 312
1.6 The Criminals  314
1.7 The Mocking of Jesus  315
1.8 The Death of Jesus  316
1.9 The Aftermaths of the Death of Jesus 318
2 Acts 320

3 The Epistles Attributed to Paul 321

4 The Epistles Not Attributed To Paul 325

5 Revelation 326

6 Conclusion – The Execution of Jesus 327

CHAPTER SIX – DISCUSSION WITH REFERENCE
LITERATURE AND SCHOLARS 331
1 Discussion One – The Definition of Crucifixion 331
1.1 An Execution 332
1.2 In the Strict Sense, an Execution 333
1.3 Not Necessarily an Execution 335
1.4 Uncertainty, but Nevertheless a Crucifixion 336
1.5 A Better Way: A Suspension Among Others 338
1.6 Conclusion – The Definition of Crucifixion 342

2 Discussion Two – The Terminology of Crucifixion 342
2.1 The Greek Terminology 343
2.1.1 ἀνασταυροῦν and ἀνασκολοπίζειν 343
2.1.2 σταυροῦν 346
2.1.3 σταυρὀς 349
2.1.4κρεμαννύναι 352
2.2 The Latin Terminology 353
2.3 The Hebrew-Aramaic Terminology 354
2.4 Conclusion – The Terminology of Crucifixion 356
2.4.1 Verbs of the σταυρ-Stem 356
2.4.2 ἀνασκολοπίζειν 357
2.4.3 σταυρός 358
2.4.4 κρεμαννύναι 359
2.4.5 crux 360
2.4.6 patibulum 360
2.4.7 The Hebrew-Aramaic Terminology 361
2.4.8 The Terminology of Crucifixion 361

3 Discussion Three – The Depiction of Crucifixion 362
3.1 The Scholarly Contributions 362
3.2 Evaluation of the Scholarly Contributions 369
3.3 A Depiction of Crucifixion 372

4 Test Case I – The Archaeological Challenge 373

5 Test Case II – Challenging the Basic Theory 374

CHAPTER SEVEN – ANSWERS TO THE BASIC QUESTIONS
OF THE INVESTIGATION 379

BIBLIOGRAPHY 383
1 Primary Sources (Texts and Translations) 383
2 Reference Works 396
3 Secondary Literature 400
4 Internet 413


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