Tuesday, December 20, 2011

Theodosius I:
A Christian or an Emperor? /

Ο Θεοδόσιος Α':
Χριστιανός ή Αυτοκράτορας;



Theodosius I / Θεοδόσιος Α'

Μετὰ δὲ τὴν βασιλείαν Γρατιανοῦ ἡ σύγκλητος Κωνσταντινουπόλεως ἀνηγόρευσε βασιλέα Θεοδόσιον, ὡς ἐκ τοῦ γένους αὐτῶν ὄντα ἐκ τῆς Ἱσπανίας χώρας. καὶ ἀναγορευθεὶς ὑπὸ τῆς συγκλήτου ἐβασίλευσεν ὁ θειότατος Θεοδόσιος ὁ Σπανός, ὁ μέγας, γαμβρὸς Γρατιανοῦ, ἔτη ιζʹ. ἦν δὲ χριστιανὸς καὶ φρόνιμος καὶ εὐσεβὴς καὶ ἐνδρανής. ἢ μόνον δὲ ἐβασίλευσεν, εὐθέως ἀνέδωκε τὰς ἐκκλησίας τοῖς ὀρθοδόξοις, πανταχοῦ ποιήσας σάκρας καὶ διώξας τοὺς Ἀρειανούς. ὁ δὲ αὐτὸς βασιλεὺς ἔστεψε τοὺς δύο αὐτοῦ υἱούς, οὓς ἔσχεν ἀπὸ τῆς προτέρας αὐτοῦ γυναικὸς Γάλλης, καὶ τὸν μὲν Ἀρκάδιον ἐποίησε βασιλέα ἐν Κωνσταντινουπόλει, τὸν δὲ Ὁνώριον ἐν Ῥώμῃ. τοὺς δὲ ναοὺς τῶν Ἑλλήνων πάντας κατέστρεψεν ἕως ἐδάφους ὁ αὐτὸς Θεοδόσιος βασιλεύς. κατέλυσε δὲ καὶ τὸ ἱερὸν Ἡλιουπόλεως τὸ μέγα καὶ περιβόητον τὸ λεγόμενον Τρίλιθον, καὶ ἐποίησεν αὐτὸ ἐκκλησίαν χριστιανοῖς. ὁμοίως δὲ καὶ τὸ ἱερὸν Δαμασκοῦ ἐποίησεν ἐκκλησίαν χριστιανῶν· καὶ ἄλλα δὲ πολλὰ ἱερὰ ἐποίησεν ἐκκλησίας, καὶ ηὐξήθη τὰ τῶν χριστιανῶν πλέον ἐπὶ τῆς βασιλείας αὐτοῦ. [...]

Ὁ δὲ αὐτὸς βασιλεὺς Θεοδόσιος ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ χρόνῳ τοὺς τρεῖς ναοὺς τοὺς ὄντας ἐν Κωνσταντινουπόλει εἰς τὴν πρῴην λεγομένην Ἀκρόπολιν καταλύσας, ἐποίησε τὸν τοῦ Ἡλίου ναὸν αὐλὴν οἰκημάτων, καὶ ἐδωρήσατο αὐτὴν τῇ μεγάλῃ ἐκκλησίᾳ Κωνσταντινουπόλεως· ἥτις αὐλὴ κέκληται ἕως τοῦ νῦν τοῦ Ἡλίου· τὸν δὲ τῆς Ἀρτέμιδος ναὸν ἐποίησε ταβλοπαρόχιον τοῖς κοττίζουσιν· ὅστις τόπος κέκληται ἕως τῆς νῦν ὁ ναός· ἡ δὲ πλησίον ῥύμη τὸ ἐλάφιν. τὸν δὲ τῆς Ἀφροδίτης ναὸν ἐποίησε καρουχαρεῖον τοῦ ἐπάρχου τῶν πραιτωρίων, κτίσας πέριξ ὁσπήτια καὶ κελεύσας δωρεὰν μένειν ἐν αὐτοῖς τὰς πάνυ πενιχρὰς πόρνας. ἐποίησε δὲ ὁ αὐτὸς Θεοδόσιος καὶ τὴν λεγομένην πρῴην κώμην Ῥοφαεινᾶν πόλιν· ἥτις μετεκλήθη Θεοδοσιούπολις, λαβοῦσα ἔκτοτε ἡ αὐτὴ κώμη καὶ δίκαιον πόλεως ἕως τῆς νῦν, ἐπὶ τῆς ὑπατείας Μηροβαύδου καὶ Σατουρνίνου.

Ὁ δὲ αὐτὸς Θεοδόσιος ἐπὶ τῆς ἑαυτοῦ βασιλείας ἐποίησε τὴν σύνοδον τῶν ρνʹ ἐπισκόπων τῶν ἐν Κωνσταντινουπόλει ἕνεκεν τοῦ ὁμοουσίου τοῦ ἁγίου πνεύματος. [...]

Ὁ δὲ αὐτὸς Θεοδόσιος βασιλεὺς ἀπὸ Κωνσταντινουπόλεως ἐξελθὼν ἐπὶ Ῥώμην εἰσῆλθεν ἐν Θεσσαλονίκῃ πόλει· καὶ τοῦ ὄντος μετ’ αὐτοῦ στρατιωτικοῦ πλήθους διὰ μιτᾶτα ταράξαντος τὴν πόλιν, ἐστασίασαν καὶ ὕβρισαν τὸν βασιλέα οἱ Θεσσαλονικεῖς. καὶ θεωρήσας ἱππικὸν ἐν τῇ αὐτῇ πόλει γέμοντος τοῦ Ἱππικοῦ ἐκέλευσε τοξευθῆναι· καὶ ἀπώλετο πλῆθος χιλιάδων δεκαπέντε. καὶ διὰ τοῦτο ἀγανακτήσας κατ’ αὐτοῦ Ἀμβρόσιος ὁ ἐπίσκοπος ἐποίησεν αὐτὸν ὑπὸ κώλυμα· καὶ ἔμεινεν ἐπὶ πολλὰς ἡμέρας μὴ εἰσερχόμενος εἰς τὴν ἐκκλησίαν, ἕως οὗ παρακληθεὶς ὁ ἐπίσκοπος εἰς τὰ ἅγια γενέθλια ἐδέξατο αὐτόν. οὐκ ἄλλως δὲ ἐδέξατο αὐτόν, ἕως οὗ ἐποίησε σάκραν, ἵνα οἱασδήποτε ἀγανακτήσεως παρὰ βασιλέως γινομένης ἔνδοσιν δίδοσθαι ἀπὸ τῶν ἐπιτρεπομένων τριάκοντα ἡμερῶν καὶ εἶθ’ οὕτως γενέσθαι τὸ προσταχθέν.


After the reign of Gratian, the senate of Constantinople proclaimed as emperor Theodosius, who was related to the imperial family and came from the land of Spain. After being proclaimed by the senate, the most sacred Theodosius the Great, the Spaniard, the brother-in-law of Gratian, reigned for 17 years. He was a Christian, and a sensible, pious and energetic man. As soon as he began to reign, he immediately returned the churches to the Orthodox, issuing rescripts everywhere and expelling the Arians. The emperor crowned his two sons whom he had by his first wife, Galla, and made Arcadius emperor in Constantinople and Honorius in Rome. The emperor Theodosius razed all the shrines of the Hellenes to the ground. He also destroyed the large and famous temple of Helioupolis, known as Trilithon, and made it a church for the Christians. Likewise he made the temple of Damascus a Christian church. He made many other temples into churches and Christianity advanced further during his reign. [...]

The emperor Theodosius in that year pulled down the three temples in Constantinople on what was formerly known as the Acropolis. He made the temple of Helios into a courtyard surrounded by houses and donated it to the Great Church of Constantinople. This courtyard is called the "Courtyard of Helios" to the present day. The temple of Artemis he made into a gaming room for dice players. This place is called "The Temple" to the present day, and the street nearby is called "The Fawn". The temple of Aphrodite he made into a carriage-house for the praetorian prefect, and he built lodging-houses close by and gave orders that penniless prostitutes could stay there free of charge. Theodosius made the village formerly known as Resaina into a city, which was renamed Theodosioupolis; the village received the status of a city during the consulship of Merobaudes and Saturninus, from that date to the present day.

During his reign Theodosius held the Council of 150 Bishops in Constantinople concerning the consubstantiality of the Holy Spirit. [...]

The emperor Theodosius left Constantinople for Rome and entered the city of Thessalonike. The military force which was with him caused an uproar in the city over billeting, and so the inhabitants of Thessalonike rioted and insulted the emperor; and when he was watching the races in the city with the hippodrome full, he ordered his archers to shoot at the crowd and as many as 15,000 were killed. Bishop Ambrose was angry with him because of this and placed him under interdict. He remained many days without entering the church, until the bishop was persuaded to receive him at the feast of the Holy Nativity. But he only agreed to receive him when he had issued an imperial rescript that, in any case of imperial displeasure, whatever its nature, a remission should be granted by the arbitrators for 30 days and only then should the sentence be carried out.

* Ιωάννη Μαλαλά, Χρονογραφία, Λόγος Β' 13:37, 39, 40, 43.
L. Dindorf, Ioannis Malalae chronographia Corpus scriptorum historiae Byzantinae. Bonn: Weber, 1831,
σ. 344-348
.
[Ελληνικά/Greek, PDF]


English transl./Αγγλική μετάφρ.:Elizabeth Jeffreys, Michael Jeffreys, Roger Scott & Brian Croke (ed. & transl.),
The Chronicle of John Malalas (Byzantina Australiensia 4),
Australian Association for Byzantine Studies, 1986.


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