63 [Γίνεται δὲ κατὰ τοῦτον τὸν χρόνον Ἰησοῦς σοφὸς ἀνήρ, εἴγε ἄνδρα αὐτὸν λέγειν χρή: ἦν γὰρ παραδόξων ἔργων ποιητής, διδάσκαλος ἀνθρώπων τῶν ἡδονῇ τἀληθῆ δεχομένων, καὶ πολλοὺς μὲν Ἰουδαίους, πολλοὺς δὲ καὶ τοῦ Ἑλληνικοῦ ἐπηγάγετο: ὁ χριστὸς οὗτος ἦν.
64 καὶ αὐτὸν ἐνδείξει τῶν πρώτων ἀνδρῶν παρ᾽ ἡμῖν σταυρῷ ἐπιτετιμηκότος Πιλάτου οὐκ ἐπαύσαντο οἱ τὸ πρῶτον ἀγαπήσαντες: ἐφάνη γὰρ αὐτοῖς τρίτην ἔχων ἡμέραν πάλιν ζῶν τῶν θείων προφητῶν ταῦτά τε καὶ ἄλλα μυρία περὶ αὐτοῦ θαυμάσια εἰρηκότων. εἰς ἔτι τε νῦν τῶν Χριστιανῶν ἀπὸ τοῦδε ὠνομασμένον οὐκ ἐπέλιπε τὸ φῦλον.]
63 [«Εκείνη την περίοδο περίπου, έζησε ο Ιησούς, ο σοφός άνθρωπος, αν βέβαια μπορεί κανείς να τον αποκαλέσει άνθρωπο. Ήταν εκείνος που έκανε απίστευτα πράγματα και ήταν ο δάσκαλος ανθρώπων που δέχονται την αλήθεια ευχαρίστως. Προσέλκυσε πολλούς Ιουδαίους αλλά και πολλούς Εθνικούς. Ήταν ο Χριστός.
64 Όταν ο Πιλάτος, έπειτα από πρόταση που του έκαναν οι επιφανέστεροι ανάμεσά μας, τον καταδίκασε να σταυρωθεί, εκείνοι που από την αρχή τον αγάπησαν δεν έπαψαν να τον αγαπούν. Διότι εμφανίστηκε σε αυτούς την τρίτη ημέρα πάλι ζωντανός, όπως οι προφήτες του Θεού το είχαν προφητεύσει μαζί με πολλά άλλα θαυμαστά πράγματα για αυτόν. Και μέχρι σήμερα η φυλή των Χριστιανών, όπως ονομάστηκαν από αυτόν, δεν έχει εκλείψει».]
63 [Now there was about this time Jesus, a wise man, if it be lawful to call him a man; for he was a doer of wonderful works, a teacher of such men as receive the truth with pleasure. He drew over to him both many of the Jews and many of the Gentiles. He was [the] Christ.
64 And when Pilate, at the suggestion of the principal men amongst us, had condemned him to the cross, those that loved him at the first did not forsake him; for he appeared to them alive again the third day; as the divine prophets had foretold these and ten thousand other wonderful things concerning him. And the tribe of Christians, so named from him, are not extinct at this day.]
—Flavius Josephus / Φλάβιος Ιώσηπος,Ελλ. μετάφρ. w12 15/3 σ. 29.
Engl. transl. by William Whiston.
At that time there appeared a man, if it is proper to call him a man, whose nature and form were human but whose appearance was more than human and whose deeds were divine. And he worked wonderful and powerful miracles. Therefore it is impossible for me to call him a man. Then again, in view of his common nature, I shall not call him an angel [either].
And everything, whatever he did, he did by some unseen power, by word and command. Some said of him: Our first lawgiver has risen from the dead and has been demonstrating many cures and skills. Others thought that he was sent from God. But he was in much opposed to the law and did not observe the sabbath according to the ancestral customs, yet did nothing dirty, unclean, nor with use of hands, but worked everything by word only. And many of the people followed and listened to his teachings.
And many souls were aroused, thinking that by him the Jewish tribes would free themselves from the hands of the Romans. But it was his habit rather to remain in front of the city on the Mount of Olives; and there he also [freely] gave cures to people. And there 150 servants and a multitude of people joined him, seeing his power, how by word he did everything he wished. They bade him enter the city, kill the Roman troops and Pilate, and reign over these. But he did not care [to do so].
Later, when news of this came to the Jewish leaders, they assembled to the chief priests and said: We are powerless and [too] weak to oppose the Romans, like a slackened bow. Let us go and inform Pilate what we have heard, and we shall be free of anxiety; if at some time he shall hear [of this] from others, we shall be deprived of property, ourselves slaughtered, and [our] children exiled. And they went and informed Pilate. And he sent and killed many of the people and brought in that wonderworker. After inquiring about him Pilate understood that he was a doer of good, not of evil, [and] not a rebel, nor one desirous of kingship; and he released him. For he had cured his wife, who was dying.
And he went to the usual places and performed his usual deeds. And again, as more people gathered around him, he became renowned for his works more than all [others]. Again the lawyers were struck with envy against him. And they gave 30 talents to Pilate that they should kill him. And he took [it] and gave them liberty to carry out their wishes themselves. And they sought out a suitable time to kill him. For they had given Pilate 30 talents earlier, that he should give Jesus up to them. And they crucified him against the ancestral law, and they greatly reviled him.
—psJosephus / ψΙώσηπος,Jewish War / Ιουδαϊκός Πόλεμος 2.9.3b-f §174
|Source / Πηγή: Henry & Katherine Leeming, |
Josephus' Jewish war and its Slavonic version,
Brill, 2003, p./σ. 261.
Σάββας Χρ. Αγουρίδης,
Το πρόβλημα των προσθηκών της σλαυονικής μεταφράσεως του Ιουδαϊκού πολέμου του Ιωσήπου και η εν αυταίς περί του Βαπτιστού και του Ιησού Χριστού μαρτυρία,
Εν Αθήναις, 1954, Διδακτορική διατριβή,
σσ. 52, 53.
* textexcavation.com, Josephus on the career and execution of Jesus.
* Wikipedia, "Josephus on Jesus", "Authenticity of the Testimonium Flavianum".